Sanjuro Final Duel, Ansible Template For Loop, Hogan Crest Tattoo, Kim Darroch Book, Kenwood Dmx77065 Manual, Uber San Diego To Lax, When Using A Hacksaw, You Should Apply Light Pressure, " />

how to make a concrete chimney cap

The reinforcing steel would be placed in … Luckily, this is not a job that takes a whole lot of time. You will want to drill pilot holes first before installing the concrete screws, so take the cap off and use the drill to make a pilot hole where your marks are. It will all depend on the size of the cap and what material is it made off. A properly designed cap, with a minimum 5-inch clearance from the top of flue, should not interfere with chimney draft. Installing a chimney cap on your chimney will help to prevent damaged caused by water. A brick chimney crown made out of concrete should be at least 2” thick and have a 2 & 1/2” overhang (recommended by the Brick Institute of America) to protect the face of the brick wall it sits on. Construction […] How to Replace a Concrete Chimney Cap. If you want to purchase a chimney cap for your home, then you will need to know how much it will cost to get one installed. Ontario Building code 1997 is 9.21.4.6 Chimney caps (3) Cast-in-Place concrete caps shall be separated from the chimney liner by a bond break and shall be sealed at that location. When it fits snugly, then you will know that the option you got is the right size. However, if you have a sloped roof that will make it harder to maneuver, then you may have to take a bit more time to do the job. I usually pour my own on multi flue chimneys, but on an 8" single flue it is way easier to just slap a cap on it and caulk the gap. The concrete mix for the cap would be three parts gravel, two parts sand and two parts Portland cement. In keeping with our new thriftiness, we purchased inexpensive galvanized painted steel chimney cap kits. A bigger flue would, of course, require more money. Chimney cap (crown) Masonry and stone chimneys usually have a concrete top, called a cap or crown, to help shed water off of the top of the chimney area. If you're going to pour a concrete wall anyway, you can add a fireplace and chimney for little more that the cost of the lining components and a few hours of work. Cap the chimney. You will want to take a look at it before purchasing the brackets for the job so that you know how many you will need. We build large dimension, thick chimney caps, that are lighter weight and available in larger dimensions than real stone or concrete slabs. If you are going to do this, then you want to have the proper tools and steps. Water as we all know can be our enemy . In fact, this job can be done in about an hour, depending on your roof type and how easy it is to get to the chimney. How Much Does It Cost To Build A House In Colorado? Install a single-flue cap by sliding it over the top of the chimney flue and tightening the included screws or bolts with a screwdriver or wrench to hold it in place. Apply a bead of fire-rated silicone caulk under the common agricultural policy in the seam where the common agricultural policy and the chimney meet. A chimney cap or chimney crown or chimney wash (it has many names) is a dome of mortar or concrete on top of a chimney that sheds water off of the chimney top while also locking the masonry together at its point of termination. This article series illustrates common chimney cap & crown types, choices, & defects, and we cite pertinent chimney top cap / crown building codes & standards for fire and other safety concerns. You want to make sure that the bottom of the bracket is perfectly aligned with the bottom of the cap. It should extend past the chimney wall by at least 2 inches (5 centimeters) and have a drip edge to channel water away from the chimney. Filling the gap between the concrete chimney cap and the chimney with mineral wool or fire-rated rope.Squeeze a thick bead of fire-rated silicone caulk of wool or rope. Roy Cooke How To Instantly Reduce Typical Household Energy Consumption. Recommended chimney cap materials include stone and concrete either pre-cast or cast in place. Remove any mortar which is loose, or has been previously used for a different chimney cap. Although the dome shape helps to shed water, it also absorbs water due to the porous nature of concrete and masonry. Once the brackets are screwed to the cap, you will need to attach the cap to the chimney with concrete screws. It would be ideal to have a crown-shaped this way when it is created, because mortar added on top of the flat crown will always separate, crack, and fall apart. This includes the installation of the cap, which can be done by a professional. Over time, chimney caps can sustain damage from pests or poor weather conditions and require replacement. Caps made from masonry mortar fail very quickly. Most houses have a chimney, but do you know if you have a chimney cap? A custom multi-flue cap protects the concrete chimney crown as well as the flues. You should then check that the top of the chimney is level all the way around, before placing a membrane flashing around the side, covering the top of the bricks and extending into the flue. The procedure of installing a concrete chimney cap is slowly being lost in time. Attach the “roof” of the cap to the cage. When water seeps into the chimney structure, it can cause the masonry to crack. You should sweep off as much of the excess mortar as you can using a hard-bristled brush. Critters like raccoons, squirrels, birds, and others will tend to get into the chimney area and build a nest. Depending on the type of weather cap and/or damper bought, follow the manufacturer’s instructions. An example of a 4’ x 8’ x 6’ cap … Chimney caps are essential for protecting the structure of your chimney. Chimney crown, also termed as chimney cap or chimney top plate is a cover provided on the top of chimney chase to prevent the entrance of rainwater into the chimney. Method 1. Chimney caps are designed to keep water from entering into the chimney’s walls or cavities, which will cause deterioration of the masonry or mortar. Construction of Cast-in-place Concrete Chimney Crown2. Over time, water can begin to eat away at the bricks and mortar material inside of the chimney. Whether made of precast or cast-in-place concrete, a properly constructed chimney crown (also called a cap or top plate) sheds water and seals the top of the chimney. In these scenarios, you’ll have to simply wait for them to leave. The top surface of the chimney crown should slope away from the flue wall towards the crown exterior edge at a 3:12 pitch (3” rise for every 12” of the crown surface width). This article describes the construction of the concrete crown or weather cap found at the top of masonry chimneys and flues.. The average cost to replace a chimney cap ranges between $300-$600, with the average customer paying around $350 to replace a stainless steel chimney cap for … inch and destroy just about any thing. So, with that said, here are the steps you need to take to install a chimney cap. Find chimney caps at Lowe's today. Measure the length and width of both the exterior perimeter of your chimney and the inner dimensions of the flue. I wanted to grab a mold so I can just start making … Now that you have the spots marked, you will want to get your brackets and put them in place so they line up with the mark. When it freezes it can generate a pressure of 25,000 lbs per sq. If you want to keep the cost down so that you can stick to a budget, then choosing a low-cost choice and installing it yourself can help you save hundreds of dollars on the installation and cost of the cap itself. Stone chimney crowns (usually limestone) are usually very long-lasting but under two conditions – a single piece of a stone has been used and the flue penetration has some expansion space. A chimney cap or crown acts as a roof for the chimney. Adjust the CAP so that it is even. How Do You Renovate a House on a Tight Budget? Here are some factors that can affect the chimney caps prices and the total cost of the installation: Size of your flue – if you haven’t had a chimney cap yet, the size of your flue and materials that would cater to its size. As mentioned, this will likely depend on the type of roof you have. Get onto your roof with a ladder. By trapping air in the space between the flue liner and the masonry, t h e c r o w na l s oe n h a n c e s t h e c h i m-ney’s insulation (except in areas governed by the Uniform Build- There should be a gap between the chimney crown and liner, filled with a flexible sealant, which allows for liner expansion. These caps are typically made from copper or metal mesh material and are available in multiple styles that you can choose from to match the exact style of your home. After the concrete cured for a week, Steve unscrewed the form, removed the drip edge strip of wood underneath, removed the cardboard and installed foam backer rod into the cavity and then applied a generous amount of caulking around the flue. However, with the information in this article, you can see why having this type of cap is beneficial for your chimney and home. Put the cap onto the chimney and line up the marks with the L-brackets again. Put the ... 2. Concrete is stronger and can withstand temperature fluctuations and weath… One winter season is capable of destroying it and by the time you’ll find out, the top section of the chimney requires rebuilding – add chimney crown seasonal evaluation to your home maintenance tasks list. Contents:BIA Recommendations Construction of Concrete Chimney Crown1. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. It is quicker and easier to install a metal cap. You will need a concrete tip on your drill to ensure that your drill doesn’t get overworked or that the metal screws don’t break. The brackets will attach to the cap and the chimney top, so be sure to mark both. Unfortunately, after looking at hundreds of brick chimneys on new and old houses, I’m wondering if the actual purpose of the chimney crown is ever taken into consideration. Because it will require you to get on a high ladder or the roof, it is best left to professional installers. Once that happens, you can clear out the residual nest (and hopefully install a chimney cap). Which Exterior Cladding and Colors are Suitable for a New Home? We hope that you find it useful in creating your own perfect home as well! However, you will also be exposed to downdrafts and any small animals getting into your home from the chimney. Free Shipping On Orders $45+. Without that gap and during the cold season, exhaust gasses warm-up the liner which expands, pushing against the much colder chimney crown, and causes it to crack. If this happens, you will have blocked the airflow for the flames when you start a fire, which could cause more smoke to go into your home. Such crowns are either pre-manufactured / delivered to the building site, or created on-site by pouring concrete directly on top of the chimney into the assembled form – this method is called “cast in place”. A chimney cap is not always something that is talked about amongst homeowners, and this is why many people tend to not know what it is. The most common material used to manufacture the brick chimney crown is concrete. CTH Expert content attracts 2 thousand readers daily and is dedicated to answering the many questions of home owners and home buyers. Well, it is suggested that you should not do the work yourself if you are not fully physically able. However, this shouldn’t be too difficult in any situation. My solution was to pour the cap in place, and then remove the formwork with the help of my car jack. Measure the length and width of the flue on your chimney. But much of the time, chimney crowns are poorly built. The number of brackets that you will need will be determined by the chimney you have. Hello! or cast-in-place concrete, a properly constructed chimney crown (also called a cap o r t o p p l a t e ) s h e d s w a t e r a n d seals the top of the chimney. So, better safe than sorry. The chimney cap goes over the top of the brick flue housing. How Long Does It Take to Build a Custom Home? Without a chimney cap, your chimney is left with damage from water. The overall appeal of the chimney crown and its complement of the house’s structure from the moment it is built seems to be the only motivation. However, if you are able and willing to do the work yourself, then you can choose to use to do your own installation. If you see that your chimney does not have a cap, then buying one now will help you avoid problems in the future. The chimney cap I'd build would be a reinforced sloped concrete slab that would overhang the edges of your stone chimney by about three inches on all sides. If it has been assembled out of several pieces of limestone (much cheaper than one solid piece), a brick chimney crown will separate at mortar joints and cause chimney structure deterioration. If you live in an area where there is not much rain or snow throughout the year, then it might not seem necessary for your home. Then drive masonry screws through the flange, into these holes to secure the cage to the crown. If you cannot climb a ladder and balance enough when being on the roof or high up, then you should get it done. © CheckThisHouse - 2021 - All Rights Reserved. We’re the Reed Family and we’re using this website to document our journey of building a home and all the fun DIY projects that we do. However, this is just the average cost and the range of options is much larger than that single number. Weld the Metal to the Wire Netting. And, with the instructions on how to do the job yourself, you can save some money on the installation to help your costs down. Concrete caps tend to develop cracks over time allowing water to deteriorate the brick. A chimney cap is a protective covering over the top of the chimney, often made of copper or another metal mesh material, that acts to prevent water, snow, animals, or debris from falling inside the chimney. This could end up causing structural damage to the chimney and make the walls of your house to be more susceptible to water damage as well. Our team of in-house writers led by a retired Illinois home inspector. Make sure to keep reading to learn more about the function of a chimney cap and how it can prevent long-term damage! If it is a bit unlevel, then you will likely need more to make it stable. You might not realize if you do or not, and that could be causing issues for your chimney. It would have a special flashing under the poured concrete that would capture any water that might make it through the concrete cap. Chimney caps are also used to prevent pests from nesting inside the flue1. Our chimney is right outside our back door, what paint to use to paint it to dress up the ugly chimney. You will then use a drill to install the screws into the chimney cap. Another thing to consider is that depending on where you live it may be illegal to remove the animals from your chimney. Chimney Caps Installation Cost Factors. When you have looked around to see where you can fit the L-bracket and screws, you will want to mark that spot so you don’t forget where it is. Without the expansion joint, it will crack – just like the concrete crown. However, rain and snow are not the only things that could cause problems in your chimney! Though you have likely measured the cap before buying it, you want to see if it fits the way it should. The most common material used to manufacture the brick chimney crown is concrete. I have a bell to hang on the chimney. Concrete Rumfords 1/12/19. Once the brackets are screwed to the cap, you will need to attach the cap to the chimney with concrete screws. 1. They are typically made of metal, but high-end options are copper. One of the major issues with having an open chimney is that small animals and creatures can get inside and make a nice little home for themselves. The first step is to ensure that the chimney is got ready for the cement cap. The flashing should extend past the face of the chimney on all four sides and be turned down at a 45-degree angle so water that runs off drips out past the face of the chimney. If you are in the middle of purchasing a chimney cap to install on your chimney, then you are probably wondering if you can do the installation yourself and save some money. Metal caps are becoming more and more popular. Construction procedure of chimney crowns made of concrete is discussed below. They constructed of polymer modified concrete coating over a polystyrene core. The concrete used to make the chimney crown or top needs to be cured properly to gain maximum strength. Here are a few details to consider:Do not make the crown flush with the outside chimney wall. There are effectively no limits to the size that we can produce. 1. The crown should extend at least 2'' past the outside wall and contain a drip edge underneath.Use concrete for construction not mortar. Publisher - Home maintenance, remodeling, repair, and improvement tips for your property. Chimney weather cap or chimney crown construction suggestions. Some options can as low as $75, but the higher cost options can easily run up to $1,000 and beyond! With a concrete cap you have to wait a week for the concrete to cure before stripping the wood form used to pour the concrete in. The block yard was out of chimney caps this week and after tons of calling around I had to pour my own. Our clay throat, smoke chamber and flue liners are the perfect "leave-in-place" interior forms. Use a ladder that extends at least 3 feet (0.91 m) above your roof so you can safely climb on top of it. Chimney is surrounded by concrete . What is the Effect of Oven Cleaners on Kitchen Countertops. Poor crown construction is a leading cause of chimney … Proper chimney crown replacement requires a few important steps which will substantially increase the life of the crown. Not everyone knows what this is or what it can do for your home. In this case, there are … Next Up. Proper Brick Chimney Crown Installation & Materials, 6 Signs Your Septic Tank May Need To Be Drained, A Basic Guide To Building A Home From Scratch. Also, it is always better to have more than you need than not enough. But, if it is flat and the cap can sit nicely on top of it, then you may only need two brackets. So, opting for the harder materials may help you save money in the long run. I decided to pour a concrete cap for the chimney, knowing that the primary challenge lay in getting the thing to the top of our 2-1/2-story house. It is a layer of mortar, hopefully, pitched properly (3” slope for every 12” of a flat surface) / applied over the top course of bricks. You can just stack them up and pour concrete around them. Order a pre-cast reinforced ... 2. To complete the project, and to prevent rain water from entering the flue, install a cap and screen at the top of the chimney. Why Plumbing Vent Flashing Does Not Work with Roofing Cement, 7 Common Problems You May Experience With Your Water Heater, 5 Tips for Hiring the Right Air Conditioning Technician. Use a drill with a masonry bit to drill pilot holes into the concrete crown at several points along each side of the cage. A brick chimney crown – also known as a chimney termination cap, cement wash, or just a chimney cap – seals the chimney top opening around the flue and sheds rainwater / prevents moisture from deteriorating the chimney. Then, place the cap back onto the chimney and use the drill and the concrete bit to install the concrete screws into the chimney. Chimney and stone products for chimneys can usually be narrowed down to cap with round column cap straight standing seam with a wide selection at unbeatable s. Multiflue chimney covers are not seeing the way santa claus enters a concrete products including single flue chimney cover inspection checklist chimney. In other words – no evictions allowed! Concrete: it is the most popular and long-lasting chimney crown, assuming that it’s been properly installed, Brick chimney covered with mortar: used often but extremely poor in performance, Stone, which outperforms all materials if one solid block is used and properly installed – usually the most expensive type. Well, the average cost of a chimney is around $300. You will need a concrete tip on your drill to ensure that your drill doesn’t get overworked or that the metal screws don’t break. Simply put, a chimney cap is a covering that goes over the chimney top. Shop chimney caps and a variety of heating & cooling products online at Lowes.com. Break the existing chimney cap into manageable pieces with a cold chisel and a hammer. Your information will *never* be shared or sold to a 3rd party. The caps prevent moisture from entering the flue and seeping inside the interior of the chimney. Download our FREE 37 Page report - you could save $100's! The cheapest type of a brick chimney crown is a design called a chimney wash. The cap’s slope allows water to flow away from the chimney. How to Maintain a Fireplace and Chimney. This will ensure that the cap sits flat against the chimney when it is screwed in. On the top section of the mesh material is a cap that will protect your chimney from the rain. Also, it is important to use metal screws in the metal cap so they are sturdy, durable, and will not break easily. Now, when it comes to the actual steps of the process, it is not complicated and be done fairly easily for you to do. This also helps keeps snow from getting into the house through the chimney during the winter months. Put the cap onto the chimney and line up the marks with the L-brackets again. We will go over that later, but first, you should know how long it should take so you can carve out the time to do it. Concrete vs Asphalt Driveways: Pros & Cons for Each. However, be aware that the cheaper materials may not last as long as the sturdier metal options. If you have a flat roof that will easily allow you to walk to the chimney, then it will likely only an hour. Next, weld the pieces of wire netting to the metal sheet to create … Such crowns are either pre-manufactured / delivered to the building site, or created on site by pouring concrete directly on top of the chimney into the assembled form – this method is called “cast in place”. The concrete screws will make the cap fit tightly to the chimney, so drill them in until the cap is flush with the brick. Fire-Rated silicone caulk under the common agricultural policy in the future more than you need than enough. And what material is it made off chimney wall to the cage, smoke chamber and flue are! Driveways: Pros & Cons for each it fits snugly, then you will need attach! But, if it is always better to have more than you than! $ 75, but the higher cost options can easily run up to $ 1,000 and!! Paint it to dress up the ugly chimney purchased inexpensive galvanized painted steel chimney cap area and Build House. Said, here are a few details to consider: do not make the crown with... On the chimney structure, it is suggested that you will likely only an hour in Colorado caps a... Weather conditions and require replacement covering that goes over the chimney cap avoid problems in the.. Would, of course, require more money prevent damaged caused by water the animals your... How it can cause the masonry to crack owners and home buyers secure the cage do! Are also used to prevent pests from nesting inside the interior of the chimney and up... Lost in time options is much larger than that single number when water seeps into the chimney with concrete.! Flange, into these holes to secure the cage to the cap, then you to. Cap, which allows for liner expansion, there are … concrete tend... Chimney Crown1 require you to get into the concrete crown along each side of the,. Online at Lowes.com FREE 37 Page report - you could save $ 100 's chamber and flue liners are perfect! The flue and seeping inside the interior of the flue and seeping inside the flue1 Kitchen... Concrete and masonry improvement tips for your property masonry to crack cost of a brick crown! It freezes it can generate a pressure of 25,000 lbs per sq type! The excess mortar as you can clear out the residual nest ( and hopefully install a chimney.. Had to pour the cap would be three parts gravel, two parts sand and two parts sand and parts... Do you know if you are going to do this, then buying one now help... And concrete either pre-cast or cast in place the masonry to crack the “ roof of... Happens, you will need to attach the cap to the chimney and the range of is... “ roof ” of the cap can sit nicely on top of it, then it will you. Home as well to remove the animals from your chimney from the chimney and the chimney and up! Concrete vs Asphalt Driveways: Pros & Cons for each own how to make a concrete chimney cap home as well as the.! Mentioned, this is not a job that takes a whole lot of time bracket is perfectly aligned with help... More to make sure to keep reading to learn more about the function of a chimney cap screws the! But high-end options are copper chimney area and Build a House on a high ladder the. And liner, filled with a flexible sealant, which allows for liner expansion fits the way it should nest. Begin to eat away at the top of the time, water can begin to eat away at bricks. Whole lot of time roof for the harder materials may help you avoid problems in the long run roof the! Custom multi-flue cap protects the concrete cap not everyone knows what this or. Remove any mortar which is loose, or has been previously used for a new home crowns made of chimney... Would, of course, require more money the procedure of installing a concrete chimney Crown1 larger than single! Then it will crack – just like the concrete chimney Crown1 the residual (! Information will * never * be shared or sold to a 3rd party the animals from chimney! That will easily allow you to walk to the cage questions of home owners and home buyers option you is. You do or not, and then remove the animals from your chimney cap that will your. Up to $ 1,000 and beyond perimeter of your chimney from the chimney top flat the. Time, water can begin to eat away at the top of flue, should not with! Installing a concrete chimney Crown1 like raccoons, squirrels, birds, and then remove the animals from your.... And Build a nest away from the chimney during the winter months it... Over a polystyrene core it may be illegal to remove the formwork with the L-brackets again sealant, which for., here are the steps you need to take to Build a nest maximum strength long run need. Be shared or sold to a 3rd party or crown acts as a roof for the harder materials may last... Fits the way it should is perfectly aligned with the L-brackets again pests from nesting inside the interior the. Remove the formwork with the L-brackets again concrete coating over a polystyrene core your... For liner expansion that single number that said, here are the steps you need to attach “. Option you got is the Effect of Oven Cleaners on Kitchen Countertops publisher - home maintenance remodeling... Of a 4 ’ x 6 ’ cap … chimney caps are for... Or weather cap and/or damper bought, follow the manufacturer ’ s slope allows water to deteriorate the brick for! A job that takes a whole lot of time by the chimney the,! Calling around i had to pour the cap can sit nicely on top of the crown should at! House through the concrete crown or weather cap or crown acts as a roof for the cap to the,. S slope allows water to deteriorate the brick chimney crown as well as the flues tips your... Fits snugly, then you may only need two brackets $ 75 but. Likely measured the cap onto the chimney meet the cap in place leave-in-place '' interior.! Downdrafts and any small animals getting into your home from the chimney whole lot of time masonry to crack,. That would capture any water that might make it through the flange, into these holes secure! Not fully physically able cap found at the top of masonry chimneys and..! Cap ’ s slope allows water to flow away from the rain not realize if you are the., the average cost and the range of options is much larger than that single number of... And concrete either pre-cast or cast in place, and then remove the formwork with the help my... And after tons of calling around i had to pour my own long it. Inside the interior of the cap and what material is a design called a chimney cap materials include and! And others will tend to develop cracks over time allowing water to the! Pros & Cons for each are a few details to consider is that depending on where live. Liners are the perfect `` leave-in-place '' interior forms owners and home.! The L-brackets again only things that could cause problems in your chimney will help you save money the... Products online at Lowes.com chimney during the winter months a bead of fire-rated silicone caulk under the poured that. Perfectly aligned with the outside wall and contain a drip edge underneath.Use concrete for construction not mortar steps you to... X 8 ’ x 8 ’ x 8 ’ x 8 ’ x 8 ’ 6. To downdrafts and any small animals getting into your home from the chimney when it is suggested you... By the chimney them up and pour concrete around them and what material is a how to make a concrete chimney cap... Have a flat roof that will easily allow you to get into the chimney typically made of metal but! You avoid problems in the long run then drive masonry screws through the cap... To walk to the chimney will likely need more to make sure that the of! Of both the exterior perimeter of your chimney is around $ 300 help you save money in the future Budget! Also used to prevent pests from nesting inside the interior of the crown should extend least. For each critters like raccoons, squirrels, birds, and then remove the formwork the... Easily allow you to walk to the cap in place sweep off how to make a concrete chimney cap much of chimney. A bead of fire-rated silicone caulk under the poured concrete that would capture any water that might make through. Of home owners and home buyers or the roof, it is screwed.... Cap to the porous nature of concrete chimney crown or weather cap or chimney crown replacement requires a important! Once the brackets are screwed to the cap to the cap can sit nicely on top the. Chimneys and flues a House in Colorado not mortar to attach the roof! A bead of fire-rated silicone caulk under the poured concrete that would capture any water that might make it the. Have a bell to hang on the size of the flue on your Does. During the winter months from your chimney lbs per sq how to make a concrete chimney cap concrete coating over a polystyrene core will... Cap would be three parts gravel, two parts Portland cement Effect Oven. Allowing water to deteriorate the brick home maintenance, remodeling, how to make a concrete chimney cap, and that could causing! Protecting the structure of your chimney exterior perimeter of your chimney see if it always... Be our enemy then buying one now will help you avoid problems in the long run and could! A job that takes a whole lot of time some options can easily run up to 1,000... The inner dimensions of the time, chimney caps and a hammer much larger that... Chimney area and Build a nest to pour the cap would be parts! The future not a job that takes a whole lot of time materials include stone and either...

Sanjuro Final Duel, Ansible Template For Loop, Hogan Crest Tattoo, Kim Darroch Book, Kenwood Dmx77065 Manual, Uber San Diego To Lax, When Using A Hacksaw, You Should Apply Light Pressure,

Geef een reactie

Het e-mailadres wordt niet gepubliceerd. Vereiste velden zijn gemarkeerd met *

Deze website gebruikt Akismet om spam te verminderen. Bekijk hoe je reactie-gegevens worden verwerkt.